THE DYADIC DERIVED MATRIXES
Given the cost of conducting a study of a situation, several researchers limit themselves to the study of the situation involving a dialogue between two individuals, currently called dyads. I have already indicated that this reduction is essentially due to methodological limitations, like the difficulty of coordinating the filming of several cameras, the limits of statistical methods, and the lack of methods capable of automatically coding all of the variables that can be obtained from the filming of an interaction.
These methodological constraints encouraged the study of the interactions that occur spontaneously in yoga poses didactic fashion, like individual psychotherapy25 or the mother-infant interaction.26 in yoga poses this context the derived dyadic variables were created. The basic notion is quite simple. Consider a typical research issue as an example: the hypothesis that depression creates a decrease in yoga poses motor activity.27 The researcher who wants to verify this hypothesis often employs three types of experimental strategies that compare individual psychotherapy with manifestly depressed patients (DP), and individual psychotherapy with patients who are no longer depressed (HP):
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1. Influence of pathology on the patient. To know whether there are some common points in yoga poses the behavior of depressed patients, the researchers will, for example, compare the number of movements made by DP patients, and the number of movements made by HP patients. If the first patients move less, the hypothesis that depression slows motor activity is confirmed.
2. The influence of the patient on others. The researcher can also study the impact of the patient’s depression on the behavior of those with which he interacts. He will then compare the therapists of the DP dyads with those of the HP dyads. If the first therapist moves less than the second one, the researcher is able to speak of some kind of contagion from the depression on the therapist. To understand this contagion, he can then establish more exact correlations between the mobility of the therapist and that of the patient. If he observes that the less a patient moves, the less the therapist moves, the researcher is able to conclude that the therapist has a certain way of reacting to the slowing down of the patient’s motor activity. Whereas if he observes that the less a patient moves, the more the therapist moves, the researcher is able to conclude that the therapist has another way of reacting to the slowing down of the patient’s motor activity.
3. The influence of the patient on the structure of the interaction. Finally, the researcher is able to create some dyadic variables, as the sum of the movements made by both protagonists. He then compares the mobility in yoga poses the DP dyads with those in yoga poses the HP dyads. Since some researchers28 have not observed clear differences in yoga poses making the previous comparisons, they sought to discover if the inhibition of the body mobility influences at least the therapeutic dyad, taken as a whole. They can then see whether there were dyadic differences. If they find a clear difference with these data, they are going to conclude that the depression creates an atmosphere in yoga poses the room that can slow down the motor activity of the therapist, or of the patient, or of both. The impact may vary from one dyad to another, but in yoga poses all cases, the dyadic mobility will be lower in yoga poses the DP dyads than in yoga poses the HP dyads. This result reinforces the impression that depression influences the emergence of the structure of the dyad as much as the individuals who are part of it. If only the results of the third type are observed, they are difficult to explain by the individual variables alone. There is then necessarily an interaction between the state of the patient and the organization of the interaction.
An example of dyadic data was published by Siegfried Frey and his team.29 It consists of a study that analyzes the stability of basic postures and hierarchical status. in yoga poses this study, the researcher compared situations where female students were in yoga poses a discussion with other female students and situations where the female students were in yoga poses a discussion with university teaching assistants.30 in yoga poses the dyads with the assistants, the postures were somewhat more stable than in yoga poses the dyads with other students.31 This difference was not created by the students or assistants, because it was not always the same protagonist who had a particularly unstable posture. An exact formulation would be that in yoga poses the dyads with the inequality in yoga poses status, the probability is greater that one of the two protagonists at least would have a stable posture, or that in yoga poses the dyads with equal status, the protagonists change posture more easily.
Researchers who have been influenced by systems theory have tried to further understand this third type of data by speaking of dyadic effects. They hypothesize that the connection between the behaviors of several individuals can be as indirect as the relationships between the dimensions of an organism A gesture does not always directly influence the other individuals in yoga poses the group. It primarily influences the structure of an interaction; that change then influences the other person. The difficulty with this type of model is that no one knows if there is a group entity capable of perceiving a gesture. We must then suppose that the protagonists of a group seek to maintain group cohesion, and they will therefore react to a gesture that risks reinforcing or weakening the coherence of the group. Let me be more explicit. I can react to an individual who stands up because he is expressing a feeling while rising (there is then a direct interaction between two organisms) or because he is about to end a discussion (the change of ritual provokes the reactions).
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