These desires are built into our sense apparatus and psychology – our cognition and perception. So in this view mind is seen to be one of the senses, as the mind on its own can generate ideas, fantasies and sensations. So the diagnosis or condition of karma and following samsara is human desire. This is the same diagnosis we found in the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, which also claimed that human desires had to be overcome in order to realise brahman and put an end to rebirth. However the issue is not ethical here. It is not about overcoming unethical behaviour. It is rather a question of stoicism (Wikipedia link): whatever feelings a person has – positive or negative – they should not be allowed to govern action and thinking.
Hence yoga and Samkhya in this part of the MD are about achieving control of these default programs – the positive and negative desires – which run our body-mind system – the senses’. This is where for instance Samkhya comes in with a philosophy, a sign system, which explains how it all works and relates. The ontology of the body-mind is for example explained in section 12.187. Here our body-mind system of senses – our self consisting of eight different elements – is seen to grow out of layer after layer of more and more abstract principles (called tattvas), prakriti being the last and fundamental. The three gunas (three fundamental tattvas) are the three abstract forces conditioning the human experience taking place within the eight elements of the self. Only by fully understanding and mastering the gunas can the final deep self – named adhyatman (which is a sort ofpurusha) – emerge, and with that, final peace. Here, clearly, it is wisdom that leads to release from rebirth, not strict ascetic efforts of body-mind discipline. Through such wisdom, in this section called buddhi-yoga, the adept is released from the forces – the three gunas – driving the self and generating karma and samsara (Malinar 2012b). Hence in this section the MD frames liberation efforts within a Gnostic wisdom discourse. The guiding idea is that Gnostic insight enables a stoic attitude to life, which overcomes karma.
Despite their strong similarity the stoic attitude of buddhi-yoga should however not be confused with an ethically based life. In ethic-based liberation the adept is released because he adheres to ethical rules governing his relationship to others and himself. We recall for instance Jain and Buddhist ethics like non-violence, compassion and loving kindness. The stoic attitude is not concerned about the well being of others – only the control of the passions of the self. This control is orientated by the insight of Samkhya into the ontology of being. Why is this distinction between stoicism and ethical living important? This means for the ruling upper classes that the violence explicitly or implicitly underpinning their power and social position is left intact. We can deduce that as long as the upper castes conduct their life in a stoic way guided by Gnosticism, they will overcome the issue of karma. Thus the upper castes do not in this section of the MD have an ethical problem with the social inequality and violence they embody.
Yoga with shoes on for However, the reality of hacking only partially fits these stereotypes. Hacking began as a social activity and remains so today with hacker publications, conferences, and discussion boards. The term hack was first used in reference to programming at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT, where it became an ethic of open access, playful revolution, and egalitarianism. It was not until some hackers used the Hacker Ethic to justify cybercrimes that the media began to make a strong association between hacking and crime. Hacking today is generally a direct attack against the weaknesses of an electronic system. These attacks are usually illegal, though there are some exceptions to this, such as testing one’s own computer systems for weaknesses. Hacking for the purposes of cybercrime is a direct, intentional attack to gain control of a system, make changes, and delete or take files. Yoga with shoes on photos, Yoga with shoes on 2016.
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