The Brahmin clans struggled to adapt to the new times. The Brahmins’ conservatism, their rituals, their kinship based customs and their legal code contravened the requirements of the new regional- and non-kinship based kingdoms. Only where the state remained weak and decentralised did the Brahmins perform better. Existing local ruling Brahmin and warrior classes
(Kshatriyas) struggled to align with the foreign rule of Persians, Greeks, Sakta and Chinese, who often displaced the Vedic rituals and caste society upon which they relied. (Bandyopadhyaya 2007). The Brahmins at the beginning of this period lost their influence at the centre of power and were relegated to the local and provincial level to provide minor domestic ritual services and local education. Many Brahmins had to find new occupations, some became peasants and others even major landowners. This was almost the equivalent of a breakdown of the Brahmin Vedic culture. It was fragmented and only kept alive by provincial clans.