Hume and Kant: A Mind without a Soul, without a Body, and without Direction
The cause or causes of order in the universe probably bear some remote analogy to human intelligence. (Hume, 1776, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, XII, p. 129)
So far from admitting that the operations of a part can afford us any just conclusion concerning the origin of the whole, I will not allow any one part to form a rule for another part…. The narrow views of a peasant, who makes his domestic economy the rule for the government of kingdoms, is in comparison a pardonable sophism. (Hume, 1776, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, II, p. 51)
In the preceding chapters, I have described the creativity with which the philosophers of the seventeenth century integrated the new propositions of physicists like Galileo and Newton. They identified (1) a world of matter about which physicists and physiologists accumulated impressive data, and (2) a world of ideas on which scientists did not dare to pronounce themselves, because they had the impression that it has different properties. They believed that once they could isolate these properties, it would suffice to apply appropriate mathematical formulae to unlock their causal dynamics. This ideal has not been achieved to this day.