There is no reason that nonverbal, postural, and even sometimes respiratory habits would escape this type of mechanism while following dynamics a bit different than those of language.
Fuzzy Causality and Logic. Philosopher Andy Clark (1997) describes a nature that can appear disorganized for someone who expects a coherence defined by the rules of logic and the mathematics of Leibniz’s time, but perhaps less so for an individual born in the twenty-first century. What is at stake is to find a formulation that tolerates not only the heterogeneity of the elements but also the heterogeneity of the mechanisms and the goals of a system.105 This heterogeneity can lead to competing contradictory mechanisms that are sometimes automatically and simultaneously activated in the same system In this new vision of systems, there can be a blend of direct and indirect relations and many ways of accomplishing an apparently identical action.106 A gesture can be mobilized by a series of regulatory systems; then, during its execution, it can activate another series of regulatory systems that do not necessarily have the same goals and functioning as the systems that initiated the gesture. Recent theories are looking for ways of describing this mode of functioning by using expressions such as fuzzy logicâ and soft causal matrices.â Here are a few examples of such notions:
1. A fuzzy logic107 is a form of reasoning composed of written instructions in a software program.108 Because it is a procedure, it can be applied as often as we want, like a mathematical formula. But the logic the programmer uses is often more intuitive than that used by an engineer, who bases his approach on classical logic and mathematics.109 This type of procedure, for example, permits one to regulate the lenses of a camera so that two distinct areas of a space appear with maximum clarity. Fuzzy logic is probably closer to mental procedures than other forms of logic.
2. A messy architecture: English-speaking authors use the term messy to designate the architecture of the regulatory mechanisms of an organism or most of the great data-processing programs. Engineers use this term when they do a makeshift repair. To the extent that each part of an organism has its own particular biological history, and the selection of each composite is carried out according to global advantages (of survival), the relationship between local mechanisms and global functioning is weak and relatively independent from the history of the organism That is why an organism as complex as a human needs more than 20 years to calibrate itself in an approximately functional fashion, and this regulation is then often put into question by the events of a lifetime. One of the problems raised by this hodgepodge architecture is that each mechanism can have a perfectly predictable causal behavior, but their combination leads to various forms of blending that are difficult to foresee (if one mechanism is more active than another, then the probability that the combination will lead to such a behavior is stronger).110
3. A fuzzy causality is a system that organizes itself from the bottom and the top, by the effect of an element on another, and by the impact of the organism on the causal chain set in place between the elements. Here is an example given by Andy Clark.111 Imagine that you place oil in a frying pan. The more the oil heats up, the more it moves in an apparently coordinated fashion. A horizontal movement forms patterns that we might observe with pleasure and curiosity. The source of this movement is the difference in temperature between the surface of the oil (in contact with the air) and the bottom of the oil (in contact with the frying pan). The hot and lighter oil rises, and the cooler and heavier oil goes to the bottom. This cycle repeats itself as the cooler oil, now at the bottom, heats up, and the hot oil, now at the top, cools down. This movement has a definite cause: the source that heats up the frying pan. This cause acts on each oil molecule. The movement of each oil molecule will act on each adjacent molecule and on no other. Nothing in this system is trying to create the beautiful global movement of the oil that you might enjoy seeing. Such spontaneous pattern formation is exactly what we mean by selforganization: the system organized itself, but there is no self, no agent inside the system doing the organizing…. These systems are such that it is simultaneously true to say that the actions of the parts cause the overall behavior and that the overall behavior guides the actions of the partsâ (Clark, 1997, p. 107).
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