The process of urbanisation, division of labour and state centralisation culminated in the evolution of some all-dominating Northern Indian empires: first the Nanda Empire (424-321BC) and then the all-Indian Mauryan Empire (321-274BC). Thus, during an intensive period of about two to three hundred years Northern India was radically transformed into an empire and an urbanised civilisation. This advent of the Axial Age civilisation was a seismic rupture having a significant impact on life conditions and people’s outlook. It is this period of transformation, from small village based kinship societies and petty Archaic states to huge urbanised, regional dynasties and empires that creates the social environment for this chapter on proto-yoga and the subsequent early-yoga.
Sociologically, based on the emergence of specialised division of labour, we would expect, that under such dramatically changing circumstances a wide range of new social groups and worldviews would evolve. And indeed there did evolve a plethora of new social groups. One was the Sramanas, who emerged at the beginning of this period of transformation. The Sramanas could be classified as itinerant intellectuals’ (representing the increasing crystallisation of cognitive labour strata within Axial Age civilisation) and we see similar social groups surfacing in Greece, Israel and China (Bellah 2011) introducing new ways of abstract thinking. These groups – typical for Axial Age civilisations – distanced themselves from the existing intellectual groups of ritual-based priests and were often very critical of existing political relations (Bellah 2012).
Yoga poses for everyday for FLOWERS star- or cup-shaped, the tepals free or united at the base only, white, cream, yellow, or orange, usually unscented but sometimes with a musty smell. STAMENS inserted below the ovary and joined to the base of the tepals. OVARY ovoid with two ovules per locule STYLE slender. FRUIT a globose or ovoid capsule. SEEDS one or two per locule, depressed-ovate and shield-shaped with a peripheral wing, black. Basic chromosome number x Southern Hemisphere, mostly South Africa c. Yoga poses for everyday photos, Yoga poses for everyday 2016.
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