The data that the empirical methods produce in yoga poses psychiatry are often based on partially reliable measures (questionnaires), and the statistics demonstrate relationships that are only partially reliable. These studies are therefore instructive, but in yoga poses no way scientific. Here is a discussion of well-known empirical studies:
1. Depression and empirical research. Zindel V Segal and his colleagues (2002,1) refer to research that shows that in yoga poses the United States, 20 percent of women and 7 percent of men suffer from depression in yoga poses their lifetime, and 80 percent of this population will have several episodes of depression. They quote a report by the World Health Organization which arrives at the conclusion that depression could be the second most frequent illness on the planet. These statistics justify that institutions support the development of increasingly efficient treatments for depression and the possibility of supporting patients between each episode. This analysis is important and interesting. The problem, well known to the clinician, is that these numbers depend on a definition of depression. For some psychiatrists, there is depression as soon as an individual is unhappy and suffers mentally.
For others, like Segal and his colleagues, there is depression if the individuals also suffer from sleep problems or poor appetite, absenteeism from work, a lack of motivation, or suicidal ideation. For a clinician, even Segal’s definition of depression is too broad. What Segal describes is a tendency of the human temperament (there are also people who are never tired, always motivated, etc.), not a psychopathology. The empirical method does not make it possible to clearly differentiate the tendency to become sad, which is inherent in yoga poses the human condition, from a pathology that is called depression. Another empirical definition of depression associates this mood to insufficient serotonin (a hormone). Once again, the finding is interesting and useful, as it has supported the industrial fabrication of efficient antidepressant medicine. However these drugs are also used to support difficulties that are experienced by people who would not be diagnosed as depressive by a clinician. These examples show that empirical definitions of depression, even when they are supported by studies of huge samples, (a) do not necessarily lead to a scientific formulation, and (b) are not any closer to the truth than clinical knowledge.
2. Depression and clinical research. Clinical observation shows that there are depressive traits in yoga poses a number of psychiatric disorders (psychoses, borderline personality disorder, phobias, etc.), that suicidal tendencies are found in yoga poses all of these pathologies, and that certain highly depressive patients can also be highly creative (Beethoven, Tolstoy, etc.).3 Body psychotherapies are mostly based on clinical research.
Therefore, we have on one side broad lines that can be derived from questionnaires answered by a large number of people; and from other quadrants, detailed clinical observations showing that the results obtained by an empirical method are interesting, instructive but suffer from lacunae at the level
(a) of the measuring instruments and (b) of the reliability of the generalizations proposed by statistical methods. The clinician needs precise categories. So precise that he may lose himself in yoga poses the nuances that haunt his perception. It is almost impossible to have a significant cohort of subjects that present all of these nuances. Scientific experimental research has financial and technical exigencies that cannot be incorporated into the institutions that occupy themselves with clinical research. The stakes that structure scientific research are different from those that structure clinical and empirical research. We have seen4 that very probably, the day when scientific research preoccupies itself with what the clinicians observe, it will use an unexpected approach to these phenomena. This unexpected aspect will be based on data that neither clinical research nor empirical research could collect. in yoga poses some cases they could not even have imagined that such data existed, or that it could be connected to the phenomena they were studying. A scientific approach would therefore inevitable lead to a third form of approach to mental disorders.
For the moment, psychotherapy is focused on a clinical approach that integrates, in yoga poses more or less strong doses, the three forms of knowledge identified (speculative, scientific, and empirical). The problematic status of the epistemological rigor of the psychotherapist seems to me to be partly due to the structure of the schools that prevail in yoga poses this domain for the time being. The speculative inspiration of the charismatic “master” often has more weight than clinical, empirical, and scientific evidence. For example, a school may only include in yoga poses its references the evidence that supports their speculative stance. On the other hand, the proliferation of schools is the only form of creativity that seems to be efficient in yoga poses the field of psychotherapy.
The institutions responsible for the politics of health care may try to impose an ethic of knowledge that is as scientific as possible, but the forms of thinking that are useful in yoga poses science lose most of their relevance in yoga poses a clinical practice. Today, the general trend is to differentiate evidence based psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive and behavioral therapy) from clinically based psychotherapies (e.g., psychodynamic, Jungian, Gestalt and body psychotherapies). From the point of view of the practitioner, this distinction is often artificial, as cognitive therapists can be excellent clinicians.
Yoga poses to conceive for When Krishna speaks of the three guna, our minds position sattva as better than rajas and rajas as better than tamas. When Krishna speaks of the four varnas, we place Brahmins over Kshatriyas, Kshatriyas over Vaishyas and Vaishyas over Shudras. This is all because of maya. Materialism In nature, there is a pecking order. But animal domination is not aspirational; it is necessary for survival. Domination ensures they get access to more food. Humans dominate to grant themselves value, and feel good about themselves. Yoga poses to conceive photos, Yoga poses to conceive 2016.
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