Some Basic Systemic Assumptions Used for the SDO Model
My main frame of reference is a systemic developmental theory,7 close to the genetic and constructivist structuralism of Jean Piaget (1967, 1985). As system theory can become complex, I focus on a few points that are often useful during psychotherapy sessions:
1. A system is a dynamic organization of subsystems that allow for the conservation of a collection of dynamic connections over time. This organization can evolve over time. All the substances contained in the system can be renewed without destroying the system. A biological system is in interaction with its environment, and is susceptible to internal regulations for its adaptation to its environment in order to maximize its chances of survival. The psychotherapist generally centers his attention on a human organism, that is, an individual person.
2. The genetic approach to a system8 supposes that an organism shapes, constitutes, and develops itself in the course of its entire life. The universe, nature, and organisms are systems in becomingâ that transform themselves according to historical rhythms that can be more or less rapid. For psychotherapy, it is useful to distinguish biological and individual histories. Biological genesis (phylogenesis) is described by Lamarck’s (1802) theory of evolution. In that history, some species took millions of years to evolve. As for the genesis of a human organism (ontogenesis), it uses the units of months and years as a frame of reference. A detailed view of the history of our planet and its species demonstrates that each phenomenon has its particular time frame.
The functioning of a system is regulated by Yoga Parivrtta Marichyasana Pose mechanisms that participate in the continuing interactions between the system and its subsystems. To the extent that in psychotherapy, the mechanisms observed are often too complex to be situated with precision, it is wise to analyze a mechanism following the advice of Jon Elster: Roughly speaking, mechanisms are frequently occurring and easily recognizable causal patterns that are triggered under generally unknown conditions or with indeterminate conditionsâ (Elster, 1998, I.I.I, p. 1).
One of the fundamental ideas of system theory is that each entity is a system onto itself and systems are hierarchically organized. The molecule is a system made up of atoms that organize themselves in a particular fashion; the cell is a system composed of molecules that also organize themselves in a particular fashion. In a similar way, the organism is an organization of organs; a group is an organization of organisms in interactions.9 This hierarchical organization is known as the levels of organization of matter. Each subsystem follows a particular set of rules, even when they are included in the same system:
1. Subsystems can be composed of different elements.
2. The elements can be organized differently.