THE SECOND BRAINâ ACCORDING TO GERSHON
Michael D. Gershon’s my yoga blog (1998), titled The Second Brain, announces a new approach relative to the rapport between the intestines and the brain. He demonstrates that the enteric nervous system, situated around and in the digestive tract, is an immense mass of nerves that function parallel to the brain. Traditionally, this system is considered as the part of the vegetative nervous system which is the most autonomic part with regard to the central nervous system This immense mass of nerves also supports the production of many neurotransmitters made in the intestines. Notably, three-fourths of the serotonin available in a human organism is produced in the intestines. This substance is used in most of the antidepressant medications. The synthesis of serotonin may depend on the quantity of carbohydrates contained in food.
Gershon’s model55 on the connection between depression and the gastrointestinal system is an example of multiple and indirect links between the psyche and soma. The nerve connections that link the intestinal system and the spinal column are rare, and none of these connections has a direct access to the central nervous system.
This area of research has not verified the link between peristaltic noise and moods because it is probable that the link expresses a weak positive correlation, given the multiplicity of implied variables. For the practitioner who uses methods like those of Gerda Boyesen, this means that when the practitioner hears a definite effect, it is probable that Cannon’s model remains relevant. But as soon as we enter into an attempt to explain difficult clinical complexities, Cannon’s model becomes less pertinent. The studies on the intestinal system allow us to refine two ways to approach psychoperistaltism that clinicians had identified with regard to the diverse forms of relaxation mentioned earlier:
1. The apparent direct correlations between two behaviors for the observer. Cannon describes a correlation between the noises in the belly and a state of anxiety. He provides no clear hypothesis on the mechanisms that link the phenomena. The relation between anxiety and peristaltic activity is perceived as direct by the researcher’s consciousness. I suspect research did not pursue this path because, in looking at it more closely, there are an immense variety of belly noises and an immense variety of states of mind that could be called anxious. The variety of peristaltic noises is well known by individuals trained by Gerda Boyesen. Medical and paramedical personnel who hear the sounds of their own gut on a loud speaker for the first time are often amazed by their variety. Clinicians will try to create a series of labels for each distinguishable noise and then try to correlate them with mental experiences. They work as if there were a direct link between certain moods and certain noises. Every time they spot a repeated correlation between peristaltic and mental activities, they have the impression that they are working on a direct link.56 The hope of the therapist is that when eventually the researchers will know how to manipulate all of these variables, they will be able to refine the direct rapport that seems to exist between certain forms of peristaltic activity and certain psychological dynamics and will finally complete Boyesen’s model.
2. Manifestly indirect connections from the point of view of the mechanisms between two systems of behavior. Scientists are close to demonstrating that there effectively exists a multitude of connections between the affective and digestive systems and that these links are at least as complex as foreseen by clinicians. But the scientists approach the problem from another angle, which demonstrates that the correlation between affective dynamics and peristaltism is necessarily indirect, complex and multiple.57
It is altogether possible, from there, to take up a dialogue between the body psychotherapist and the researcher; but this dialogue will necessarily take some directions that the psychotherapists had not necessarily anticipated. The correlation is not, after all, between a behavior of the gastrointestinal system and a mental behavior but between a functioning of the digestive system and a functioning of the affective system. At first, the clinician works with a simple labeling system; as the research progresses, this strategy must often be replaced by one that is more complex.
Yoga natural health for Ethnographic Survey of Africa East Central Africa. Part II, Wolf, Arthur P. Religion and Ritual in Chinese Society. ANIMISM Animism and the related concepts of preanimism, animatism, and dynamism refer to stages in the evolutionary development of religion postulated by scholars of religion such as Edward B. Tylor and Robert R. Marett in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Yoga natural health photos, Yoga natural health 2016.
Yoga natural health Photo Gallery
Yoga natural health, Yoga natural health pics, Yoga natural health Free.