Yoga movements on Hardy links tantrism with other antinomian movements because of its conscious rejection of certain socially accepted taboos, and of a belief in the efficacy of official religion. 37 Antinomianism, from the Greek nomos (convention, custom or law) and anti (against), challenges social conventions, mainly by arguing that whilst they are often promoted by their advocates as natural or true they are actually constructed by social groups for ideological purposes. During the Gupta period brahmanical conventions and laws became increasingly rigid and oppressive. As noted above (Chapter 5), Norvin Hein argues that although some modern brahman historiography presents the Gupta period as a golden age of toleration and freedom the reality was quite different for large sections of the population. He writes, In the critical matter of caste rules the Gupta tolerance had sharp limits. The enforcement of the varnasramadharma had been the cry of a brahmanical crusade for centuries. An aggressive and coercive attitude continues to pervade the brahman puranic writings of the Gupta age [and kings] became the enforcers, not the makers, of law 38 Brahmans had finally managed to bring the ksatriyas under a degree of control and, as Hein points out, those who were entrapped in the routines of caste duty found little to raise their spirits. Yoga movements 2016.
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