An important aspect of the psyche is to allow an organism to integrate itself into the dynamics of social institutions, thanks to its ability to manage tools and media. It can interact beyond the immediate here-and-now. Corrections are thus possible, as when one corrects a text. A reader cannot be aware of the many corrections made by the author of a my yoga blog. Even if the mind has other important functions, this one distinguishes humans from other species. Neither art, nor law, nor economics, nor religion, nor science could exist without the human capacity to construct a body of knowledge that inscribes itself in a media accessible to all. This understanding is close to the concepts of present-day psychologists and sociologists, like Ed Tronick’s notion of co-construction, Philippe Rochat’s coconsciousness, Pierre Bourdieu’s analysis of distinction, or the coordinating function of the rituals described by Claude Levi-Strauss.
This aspect of psychological dynamics has been explored in the past by psychologists at least since Vygotsky. Even if this definition of the mind still needs to be refined, it allows us to differentiate it from the other dimensions and to specify the therapeutic aims of psychotherapy. To ask someone to describe, using words or gestures, what one is aware of implies a clear distinction between behavioral expressive dynamics and psychological impressions. One can then distinguish in a more explicit way (a) problems in thinking, (b) problems in expression, and (c) problematic connections between thoughts and behavior.
It is difficult to demonstrate that the interpersonal regulatory system of humans is more evolved than that of monkeys (Waal, 1998, 2002). We could not easily show, for example, that the relationship between parents and infants are more developed among the citizens of Geneva than among chimpanzees in the wild. For example, I doubt that abusive parents are as numerous in a tribe of chimpanzees as they are in human families. On the other hand, the difference between the two species becomes intuitively obvious when we observe how mind and institutional organizations interact (Boyd and Richerson, 1996, 2005; Moessinger, 2008). To study the interaction between socially constructed beliefs and individual minds, it is also useful to distinguish between (a) the psychological means used by the organism to integrate itself in a social network (intelligence, imagination, etc.), and (b) the socially constructed ways of helping (or forcing) the organism of a citizen to integrate itself in an institutional environment. This relative differentiation between psychological mechanisms (representations, reasoning, perception, etc.) and social mechanisms (tools, rituals, etc.) explains the human capacity to exist in a great variety of cultural environments.
The organism can become relatively independent from the constraints imposed by the here and now when it uses its psychological capacity to use tools, which is not the case when it uses its behavioral resources. When I read a passage written by Homer, I have the impression that his thoughts meet mine, even though he has been dead for more than 2,000 years. The communication strategies used by a society to facilitate the inclusion of citizens in institutional dynamics influences the manner in which the mechanisms of the mind develop. Alfred Russel Wallace32 describes the case of the girl he adopted who was born in a jungle. In London, she became a renowned classical pianist. For Wallace, it was evident the psychological and behavioral skills that made it possible for this girl to become a pianist would never have developed in the jungle. Her original environment would have mobilized other capacities. In other words, an organism can develop in different ways, which are all potentially available.
Yoga to meet chicks for Eastland, Terry. Ending Affirmative Action The Case for Colorblind Justice. New York Basic Books, Edwards, John. When Race Counts The Morality of Racial Preference in Britain and America. London Routledge, Jacobs, Lesley A. Yoga to meet chicks photos, Yoga to meet chicks 2016.
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