I will start my genealogy of the three principles of proto-yoga with an investigation of asceticism, in India often synonymous with tapas (heatâ). In order to understand the importance of asceticism in Northern India, I will investigate a social model which anthropologists call Siberian- or Asian-Shamanism, where asceticism played a major role. The Indo-aryan tribes most probably subscribed to some form of the culture of Asian Shamanism before they migrated into Northern India. So did the non-Aryan North Indian communities. The theory is that even if the Vedic communities had evolved into more ritual oriented communities and left many aspects of Shamanism behind them, they were still under the influence of Shamanism and asceticism – embodying a code or a habitus. This came to expression in the significant role asceticism played in Northern Indian societies. Further, the conflicts inherent to Asian Shamanism might also apply to the way some of the conflicts of the Vedic kingdoms were played out. So I will return to this model several times in my account.
As I have said, when we have introduced Shamanism and the code and habitus it quietly passed on to Vedic societies, we can then investigate asceticism which was inherent to Shamanism. We can see that asceticism actually has many of the hallmarks of a code and habitus itself – that it also embodies a kind of cultural grammar or unconscious mental habit, which is silently transmitted. Alternatively we could say that within asceticism we find a code, a habitus which we could call semi-divine power. Either way, we will see how this habitus – asceticism or semi-divine power – informed the Northern Indian discourse of tapas.
If the reader is not interested in this investigation of what made yoga and its symbolic power possible you may jump these modules on Shamanism, asceticism and tapas. This chapter concludes with an investigation of Brahmin styles of meditation, which acknowledges that some Brahmins seems to have developed new styles of meditation.
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