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It therefore seems that all the affections of soul involve a body-passion, gentleness, fear, pity, courage, joy, loving, and hating; in all these there is a concurrent affection of the body. In support of this we may point to the fact that, while sometimes on the occasion of violent and striking occurrences there is no excitement or fear felt, on others faint and feeble stimulations produce these emotions, viz. when the body is already in a state of tension resembling its condition when we are angry…. From all this it is obvious that the affections of soul are enmattered formulable essences. (Aristotle, Of the Soul, 1.1)

Aristotle also quotes Democritus, for whom breath is the medium through which the soul animates the organism8

Spinoza proposed a compromise between the positions of Descartes and Aristotle. He maintains the distinction of the parallelistic dimensions, but he introduces three restrictions to the independence between soul and body:

1. There is but one universe and it obeys integrally to the laws of logic, geometry, and mathematics.

2. This implies that although the objects of the mind and the objects themselves have different properties, they both follow the same causal laws.

3. As thoughts and objects are part of the same nature, the events that unfold in each dimension are influenced by the dynamics of the universe and by its architecture.

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