THE NEO-DARWINISM OF TODAY
Is there any reasonable ground to conclude, that the inhabitants of other planets possess thought, intelligence, reason, or anything similar to these faculties in men? When nature has so extremely diversified her manner of operation in this small globe; can we imagine, that she incessantly copies herself throughout so immense a universe? (Hume, 1776, Dialogues Concerning Natural
The preceding sections permit us to distinguish between at least three neo-Darwinian trends:
1. Wallace-Mendel: The Darwinism of molecular biology is mostly influenced by a synthesis between the last formulations of Wallace on Darwinism and the genetics of Mendel. In these theories, chance ends up creating, of necessity, a wonderfully coherent world (Jacob 2000). This proposition was incorporated into the Utopia of economic liberalism and academic biology.
2. Lamarck-Darwin: The ethologists avoid talking about Lamarck, but they finally present a form of Darwinism in which chance necessarily leads to functional forms of coherence. This position leads to conclusions that are close to Lamarck’s observations.
3. Darwin: The theoretical issues raised by artificial intelligence and the postmodern philosophers seem to have favored a rereading of Darwin that associates the meanderings of his thought to a nature that modifies things without any necessity, as if it continuously tinkered with everything that exists.