Finally, there were the Buddhists in close discussion with most of these groups, claiming that they knew how to reach a state called nirvana. The Buddhists like some of the other groups tended to give new significance to wisdom and knowledge about the fundamentals of reality. As in Greece there developed in India the notion that such knowledge could lead to unprecedented happinessâ, or in India’s case: release (moksha, nirvana).
In this way emerging Axial Age wisdom discourses – constructing knowledge as the new highway to happiness and metaphysical benefits – merged with existing ascetic discourses among especially the Sramanas. This mixture and clash of the old discourses (asceticism) with the new discourses (wisdom) was significant for the crystallisation of yoga practices and signs. There were two entirely different ways of generating and framing cultural capital: an Archaic method of accumulating semi-divinity versus and Axial Age method of accumulating knowledge. However, with the sign moksha’ (release) they managed to bring these discourse tensions together under a single fragile theoretical hat.
Reviewing the various Sramana groups it is striking that one group is never mentioned in either Sramanic nor Brahmin text sources – the yogis. So in this period – contrary to most popular writings on yoga – there are no historical indications of a social group labelled yogis -neither among the Sramanas nor among the Brahmins. I will return to this in the chapter on early-yoga.
Yoga for gas for The Contradictions of American Capital Punishment. New York Oxford University Press, Web Sites Amnesty International Death Penalty www.amnesty.org en death-penalty Death Penalty Information Center www.deathpenaltyinfo.org National Civil Liberties Union Death Penalty www. Yoga for gas photos, Yoga for gas 2016.
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