We thus had, in the Athens of those days, two kinds of theories:
1. Plato’s theories often use metaphors.16 Their pedagogical purpose is to help and instruct citizens who want to acquire meaningful intellectual representations on human dynamics.
2. Aristotle’s academic and scientific theories. They propose general laws that attempt to integrate all the known facts.
In psychotherapy, even Freud’s theory can be situated halfway between the strategies of Plato and Aristotle. That is why I refer to them as metaphorical theories. They consist of metaphorical modelsâ of observable phenomena that are not close enough to the data to be considered laws, but are useful to guide the therapist’s interventions and the patient’s representations. The unconscious,â defense systems,â and muscular armoringâ are examples of what I call metaphorical notions.