This is a good example of accepting a lower level of evidence for a specific treatment based upon an understanding of the mechanisms of action and weighing the minimal risks in a situation where there are limited standard treatment options. Passionflower Passiflora incarnata A study of mice found that an extract of Passiflora incarnata reversed tolerance of and dependence on morphine, nicotine, ethanol, diazepam, and delta-tetrahydrocannabinol Dhawan, Dhawan, & Chhabra, 2003. In a 14-day DBRPC study, 65 patients with opioid dependence DSM-IV were randomly assigned to treatment with clonidine plus Passiflora extract or clonidine plus placebo extract. There was no difference in the effectiveness of both treatments in reducing physical symptoms of withdrawal based on the Short Opiate Withdrawal scale SOWS. However, the addition of Passiflora to clonidine accelerated the onset of action and significantly diminished the psychological symptoms of withdrawal Frezza, Surrenti, Manzillo, Fiaccadori, Bortolini et al., 1990. This study is a good example of the appropriate use of an herb to complement the effects of a standard treatment. The use of Passiflora as a complementary treatment in opioid withdrawal warrants further study using additional psychological measures.
Potential side effects include dizziness, confusion, ataxia, sedation, and prolonged QT intervals. Other Herbs that Reduce Alcohol Intake in Animal Studies Numerous plant extracts have been found to reduce alcohol intake without suppressing appetite in rat strains inbred to prefer alcohol. These include St. John’s Wort, Tabernanthe iboga ibogane, Panax ginseng, and Salvia miltorrhiza Danshen; Overstreet, Rezvani, Cowen, Chen, & Lawrence, 2006. Panax ginseng Panax ginseng may reduce dependence and tolerance for cocaine, amphetamines, and morphine, based on animal studies Huong, Matsumoto, & Yamasaki, 1997; Kim, Kang, & Seong, 1995; Oh, Kim, & Wagner, 1997. These effects may be due to increasing central nervous system dopamine levels. Pueria labota or Kudzu Pueria labota or Kudzu root containing diadzin, diadzein, puerparin was shown to decrease alcohol intake in rodent studies. In addition, in a small pilot DBRPC study, veterans diagnosed with alcoholism were randomly assigned to receive either Kudzu root extract 1.
After one month, no statistically significant differences were noted in craving or sobriety scores Shebek & Rindone, 2000. A DBRPC study of heavy alcohol drinkers studied kudzu extract versus placebo for seven days. Subjects on kudzu showed significant reduction in the number of beers their favorite brand consumed and the volume of each sip with a parallel increase in the number of sips and the time to consume each beer Lukas, Penetar, Berko, Vicens, Palmer et al., 2005. Mentat Mentat, a traditional Ayurvedic herbal formula, contains ashwaganda Withania somnifera, bacopa Bacopa monniera, morning glory Evolvulus alsinoides, gotu kola Centella asiatica, musk root Nardostachys jatamansi, Indian valerian Valeriana jatamansi, triphala, guduchi Tinospora cordifolia, and mucuna Mucuna pruriens.
Mentat showed promise in reducing relapse in abstinent alcoholics in one small open series Trivedi, 1999. Ashwaganda one constituent in Mentat has been reported to decrease opiate withdrawal symptoms in animal studies. These approaches need further clinical trials Kulkarni & Ninan, 1997; Ramarao, Rao, Srivastava, & Ghosal, 1995. Donepezil Aricept Donepezil Aricept has been shown to reduce methamphetamine craving in rats Hiranita, Nawata, Sakimura, Anggadiredja et al. This would suggest that Huperzine-A, and other cholinesterase inhibitors sage, passionflower, galanthus, Ba Wei De Huang Wan, might prove helpful in reducing craving. Research to explore these possibilities is needed. COMPLEMENTARY TECHNOLOGY-BASED INTERVENTIONS James Lake provides an in-depth discussion of the following technology-based interventions Lake, 2007. Virtual reality gradual exposure has been used to excite alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, and cocaine craving followed by cognitive therapy to prevent response and induce desensitization to cues for abuse.
Yoga to cure a cold for According to a number of studies, rates of consumption there increased considerably during the s, amid the political, economic, and social dislocations caused by the breakup of the Soviet Union. As noted in this policy briefing by the World Health Organization, alcohol consumption is one of the major causes of inordinately high rates of violence of all kinds in Russia, including domestic violence, rape, gang violence, assaults, homicide and suicide. www.euro.who.int document e.pdf. Yoga to cure a cold photos, Yoga to cure a cold 2016.
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