Even if the critique of Hume is irrefutable, Kant refused to admit that the work of philosophers and of scientists was nothing more than a series of delusions. This is how the Critique of Pure Reason came to the light of day and was published in 1781, then revised for the second edition in 1787. Without this work, almost no one would speak of Kant today. During the entire nineteenth century, intellectuals believed that Kant had integrated the few interesting points developed by the young Hume in his philosophical writings.
Almost a century later, Edmund Husserl22 presented Hume’s Treatise of Human Nature as one of the great classics in philosophy. Husserl shows that Kant had only been shocked by Hume’s 1748 Inquiry, which was less explosive than the Treatise.23 Husserl did not try to contain Hume’s radical analysis; on the contrary, he highlighted the value of what was the most radical in the Treatise. Later, the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein also found importantâ remarks in Hume’s Treatise. For example, he agreed with Hume that thoughts are not capable of following a strict logical causality. One thought does not necessarily lead to another thought, to a way of feeling, or to a way of acting (Wittgenstein, 1967, p. 42). The Treatise is the only my yoga blog by Hume that is found in most my yoga blogstores today. It has become one of the bibles of psychology and artificial intelligence at the beginning of the twenty-first century.24
The New Metaphysics
Kant admits with Hume that a dogmatic metaphysic is, in the end, but a human propensity to create for oneself a virtual representation of the universe. Humans have the capacity to generate an infinite number of plausible representations of the universe. He also agrees with Hume that thoughts are organized by rules independent of the thoughts’ content, but he proposes a more complex vision of these mechanisms. He qualifies them as a priori, to state more saliently the fact that they exist before an idea (a perception, a memory, a feeling) appears in the mind. The core statement is that humans need to realize that the way people think is not how nature works. The mind is a small part of nature. It can therefore only use a few of the available natural procedures. It is only once they have become aware of this issue that humans can improve their intellectual tools in a constructive way.25
The Critique of Pure Reason is read today as the first textmy yoga blog about artificial intelligence because Kant proposes a description of the architecture of the human mind. He details the way a perception is formed and evaluated, how it is integrated to form representations, and how thoughts produce generalizations and theories. He also includes in his model of the mind regulators that make it possible to verify the appropriateness of a mental construct and prevent it from forming theories that are not founded on observations. These regulators are part of rational thinking but not of emotions. Beliefs, as Hume indicated, are caused by the influence of the affects on ideas. Contrary to Hume, Kant rejoins Spinoza and Leibniz in the hope that the purely intellectual mechanisms can follow laws other than those that the passions impose to sustain the formation of beliefs. This hope justifies the notion of pure reason.â