There is also growing evidence to support the use of mind-body practices, herbs, and nutrients as complementary interventions in the treatment of individuals with substance abuse disorders Dean, 2003. Difficulty in regulating affects such as anxiety, fear, and anger contribute to the abuse of substances. Interventions that improve affect tolerance and affect regulation help patients learn to deal with difficult emotions without using substances of abuse. Many people who suffer from addictions have poor nutritional status along with comorbid physical and emotional problems such as depression, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, neurological deterioration, lung disease, liver disease, hepatitis, and HIV. Herbs, nutrients, antioxidants, and nootropics that ameliorate these conditions, as described in the other chapters in this book, can be valuable in such cases. MIND-BODY PRACTICES An excellent review of mindfulness-based cognitive interventions in the treatment of cooccurring addictive and mood disorders proposes that chronic use of addictive substances compromises areas of the brain responsible for affect regulation, attention, inhibitory control, and the ability to observe and moderate responses to intense emotions Hoppes, 2006. Deficits in affect regulation increase vulnerability to relapse, particularly in early stages of recovery. By improving affect tolerance and affect regulation, mind-body approaches can enhance treatment outcome during the withdrawal, early recovery, and maintenance phases.
Randomized clinical trials in this area are limited; however, several aspects of mind-body practices may contribute to their beneficial effects. Breath practices, yoga postures, relaxation, and meditation reduce states of arousal, tension, anxiety, insomnia, anger, depression, and PTSD see Chapters 2 and 3. Patients report that during recovery, mind-body practices help them by putting a distance between the impulse to take substances of abuse and the compulsion to act on the impulse. Mind-body programs often incorporate aspects of Eastern psychology and Buddhist theory of mind regarding the nature of thoughts and emotions. This can change the relationship to mental contents, modify the appraisal of thoughts and feeling states, teach people to let go of their attachment to negative thoughts/emotions, redirect attention away from negative thoughts, and balance techniques for change with a philosophy of nonjudgmental acceptance. Mindfulness techniques and affect tolerance have been incorporated into Dialectical Behavioural Therapy DBT in the treatment of substance abuse Linehan, Dimeff, Reynolds, Comtois, Welch et al., 2002. Qigong Qigong incorporates meditation, relaxation, guided imagery, concentration, and breathing exercises.
The Chinese word qi translates as breath of life or vital energy, similar to the Sanskrit word, prana. Gong means the skill to work with. By developing awareness of qi sensations in the body, practitioners learn to guide the flow of qi. Qigong masters are believed to possess the ability to emit energy external qi, sending it to heal the recipient. In a comparison control study of Qigong versus medication and placebo during opiate withdrawal, 86 male heroin addicts DSM-III-R admitted for mandatory treatment to the Changzhou Drug Treatment Center in the People’s Republic of China were assigned to one of three treatment groups according to the order of their admission. One group practiced a simple form of Qigong PanGu together 2 to 2.5 hours/day and received emitted qi for 10 to 15 minutes/day from a Qigong master. The second group was treated with detoxification medication in tapering doses lofexidine, physical exercise, and group counseling.
The nontreatment group was only given emergency care for acute pain, diarrhea, or insomnia diazepam or methaqualone. The Qigong group had significantly lower mean scores on the Chinese Standard Evaluation Scale of Withdrawal Symptoms starting from the first day of treatment p0. Mean Hamilton Anxiety scores Ham-A were comparable at baseline among the groups 33.5-37.4. However, by day 5 of detoxification, mean Ham-A dropped from 37. Although there are methodological problems in this study, such as the inability to separate effects of group Qigong practice from interventions by the Qigong master, it provides evidence that Qigong practices may accelerate detoxification and reduce withdrawal symptoms. The physiological mechanisms by which these effects occur may be similar among mind-body practices that use breath, posture, relaxation, imagery, concentration and meditation.
Yoga for 7 chakras for Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation. London Pimlico, Sunstein, Cass, and Martha Nussbaum, eds. Animal Rights Current Debates and New Directions. New York Oxford University Press, Waldau, Paul. Yoga for 7 chakras photos, Yoga for 7 chakras 2016.
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