The later epic Ramayana also emerged in this period and is similar in expressing this monotheistic ideology. So did the Puranas.
In summary this becomes the period of monotheism: the discourse of a single dominating, potent, universal and cosmic god, who became very involved with yoga. The dominance of monotheism was related to the rise and spread of the powerful king who embodied it. The supremacy of this monotheism did not happen overnight and it took time for it to spread from the royal courts and upper classes to the laity. At the end of the Gupta Empire, this monotheism had probably ascended to overall Northern Indian prevalence.219
The rise in India of what we could call royal monotheism’ is an example of how fundamental changes in the socio-political conditions become reflected in religio-cultural changes (Trigger 2007). Accordingly as the politico-social environment changes, we would also expect a range of new social species of professional holy men to evolve. We would expect them to compete with existing groups and there will be adaptation and struggle. As we shall see in this chapter, the ideas and practices among the Sramanas and Brahmins became strongly monotheistic. Many Brahmin clans for instance became temple priests of the new gods. Or the other way round: a local Vishnu clan of priests would manage to become recognised as a Brahmin caste as their tribe was Hinduisedâ. In other words they took up elements of caste organisation to gain authority. Other Brahmin clans would occupy the leadership role of a new Puranic deity cult as often only Brahmins were seen as fit to rule (der Veer 2004, Gross 1992, Nandi 1986, Thapar 1987). Accordingly we now hear about new groups of holy men like Siva and Vishnu Brahmins.
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