Water Aerobics Exercise

Water Aerobics Exercise

Equation 4i is called the “coupling equation” and illustrates the fact that these four basic elements of physics enter every crystal growth situation and are intimately coupled through this constraint. However, for different materials, certain components of Equation 4i tend to dominate the phase transformation. In the growth of metal crystals from a relatively pure melt, ATH ~ AT so that this case is largely controlled by heat flow. During the growth of an oxide crystal from a melt of steel, e.g., ATS ~ AT, so that the growth is largely diffusion-controlled. During the growth of a polymer crystal from a well-fractionated polymeric melt, ATK ~ AT and the growth is largely controlled by the kinetics of interface attachment. Finally, during the growth of a lamellar eutectic crystal, ATE ~ AT/2 and the growth is to a large degree controlled by the excess free energy of the solid (due to the formation of a/p phase boundaries).

By considering Figure 8, which is a plot of crystal growth velocity as a function of time, we find that at small times ATE in Equation 4i dominates the crystal’s growth and thus plays an overriding role in its initial morphology.

Schematic of particle growth velocity V versus time t, illustrating the regions where various mechanisms are dominant.

At large times ATS and ATH in Equation 4i dominate the crystal’s growth and lead to very different morphologies. At intermediate times all four factors play significant roles in the shape adopted by the crystal.

There is little doubt that crystal morphology plays a significant role in the resultant crystal perfection, and that this morphology is largely determined by the subtle interplay of the factors already discussed. However, the prediction of crystal shape with time is a problem that only recently can be solved in any general way. This arises because the problem thus far stated is, in general, not completely specified. Knowing V and S, Ci and Ti can be completely determined in terms of C and

Tw. respectively; and ATS ATE ATK and ATH are completely determined in the general mathematical sense. However, we don’t know either V or S. If S(t) is specified, Equation 4i can be used to determine V(t). We are in need of an additional condition to completely specify the problem and thus provide simultaneous prediction of both V(S) and S(t).

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We shall find that our extra condition is generated by considering the response of the growing crystal to shape perturbations. It can be easily shown that the various elements of the interface will always be subjected to fluctuations in AT and in its component ATi’s. Thus, given sufficient time we should always expect that shape distortions will have a finite probability of forming on the crystal surface and that the crystal will evolve to that shape which is most stable in the environment that allows such perturbations. With the addition of our perturbation response equation in the general form the most stable crystal shape, S, and the corresponding growth velocity at various points on the crystal surface, V, may be evaluated from equations 4i and 4j. From the experimental side of the picture, unconstrained crystallization of water containing various solutes has been well studied via the conventional variables since the late 1950s with cinemaphotography used to see the ice- crystal morphological changes depending on the variable changes invoked. In particular, the entire range of crystal morphologies shown in reference 6 has been observed for constant AT and .T by adjusting both the concentration and type of added solute and ATC. the undercooling at which the ice-crystal nucleation is initiated. Thus, one can conclude that, in reference 6, one is dealing with the normal crystallization process perturbed perhaps somewhat by the human consciousness invoked. In the first section of this chapter, our IIED-experiments clearly confirmed robust effects of human intention on various processes of physical reality. Some of this psychoenergetic effect has been shown to be directly correlated with the raising of the thermodynamic free-energy state of the system when the two unique levels of physical reality, Px and P2. become significantly coupled together. In addition, a quantitative measure of this change has been demonstrated using an H+ ion probe.14 If such a coupled system was generated in the Emoto experiments, then this would alter the thermodynamic driving force, AG, up or down for the water-crystallization process; and one could expect significant changes thereby. However, before jumping to such a conclusion, there is an experimental difficulty that first must be resolved.

In the Emoto experimental protocol,6 one starts with a cold chamber at 0°C – AT where AT is presumed to be sufficiently large that most if not all of his water samples are well below their liquidus temperature and thus should eventually freeze. However, one can’t be completely sure of this because he doesn’t specify C and the solute type/types. Nevertheless, let us presume that AT is sufficiently large that AT is greater than {0°C – AT (Cw) – ATc} so his samples will all freeze. Let us suppose that he uses a tray with 25 water-sample holders at room temperature well above 0°C and places them into his cold chamber. The water samples will begin to lose heat to the chamber so they cool at a rate f, which slows down with time. At a melt undercooling of ATC they begin to nucleate ice crystals, probably on the top surface of the water (because the heat transfer rate is greatest there). These small crystals will float, because water expands upon freezing; and the value of N0 becomes important here in determining the ultimate crystal size and perfection. To determine if there is a significant correlation between ice-crystal morphology and a written intention message pasted on the tray, one would need to see more than 20 of the 25 cups providing the same crystal morphology, and in a repeatable way. If this level of replicability or better isn’t achieved, one shouldn’t take the result to be a very significant one. As a more refined experiment, one should start with purified water and add a specific solute to a concentration, Cw. and let this be the sample water for the written messages. In addition, between uses, the sample tray should be heated to a temperature well above room temperature and vacuum dried so that all previous ice fragments are removed from microscopic crevasses in the tray.

Water is the single most important material for the existence and support of human life and health. It has been almost totally neglected by post-World War II biochemical medicine, in spite of the latter’s incredibly generous research budgets. The signal failure of such research as demonstrated daily in its outcome statistics and the U.S. healthcare system’s unenviable track record as the leading vector of death among all illnesses is in no small measure due to the peculiar shortsighted focus on organic biochemistry, which has no place in the study of the role of water in human health.

This unique relationship water and health has been emphasized in many concrete and symbolic ways in virtually every ancient tradition. The scientific study of water has been carried out so far by the chemistry community, with an approach emphasizing the molecular level of structure. According to a recent major review, physicists and materials scientists find water to exist in a nearly infinite set of structures, which are uniquely labile, changeable among themselves.

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