Meditation online on 2 and In sum, the Indian tradition shows no evidence for the kind of posture-based practices that dominate transnational anglophone yoga today.3 If Singleton is correct, and he makes a pretty good case, then the question becomes from where did modern anglophone postural yoga originate? His answer is that Quasi-religious forms of physical culture swept Europe during the nineteenth century and found their way to India, where they informed and infiltrated popular new interpretations of nationalist Hinduism. Experiments to define the particular nature of Indian physical culture led to the reinvention of asana as the timeless expression of Hindu exercise. Western physical culture-oriented asana practices, developed in India, subsequently found their way (back) to the West, where they became identified and merged with forms of esoteric gymnastics, which had grown popular in Europe and America from the mid-nineteenth century (independent of any contact with yoga traditions). Posture-based yoga as we know it today is the result of a dialogical exchange between para-religious, modern body culture techniques developed in the West and the various discourses of modern Hindu yoga that emerged from the time of Vivekananda onward. Although it routinely appeals to the tradition of Indian hatha yoga, contemporary posture-based yoga cannot really be considered a direct successor of this tradition.4 According to Singleton, the first four decades of the twentieth century were pivotal for the emergence of this posture-based yoga, which, he argues, is a synthesis of six different streams: 1. Meditation online 2016.
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