Energy drinks Increased energy, strength, power Increased training volume; caffeine and carbohydrates are main ingredients; products are overpriced Insomnia, increased blood pressure, heart palpitations
Ephedra Decreased body fat; increased training intensity due to stimulant effect Decreased appetite, particularly when taken with caffeine; some evidence for increased training intensity Abnormal heart rhythms, nervousness, headache, gastrointestinal distress, and heatstroke; banned by the FDA
Erythropoietin Enhanced performance during endurance events Stimulated growth of red blood cells; enhanced oxygen uptake and endurance Increased blood viscosity (thickness); can cause potentially fatal blood clots
Ginseng Decreased effects of physical and emotional stress; increased oxygen consumption Most well-controlled studies show no effect on performance No serious side effects; high doses can cause high blood pressure, nervousness, and insomnia
Green tea extract Decreased body fat Some studies show decreases in body fat Insomnia, headache, nausea, heart palpitations.
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Growth hormone Increased muscle mass, strength, and power; decreased body fat Increased muscle mass and strength; decreased fat mass; little effect on exercise performance Elevated blood sugar, high insulin levels, and carpal tunnel syndrome; enlargement of the heart and other organs; an extremely expensive controlled substance
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Increased testosterone production; prevention of muscle atrophy during steroid withdrawal Increased testosterone production Interferes with normal testosterone regulation; banned in most sports