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Cannon and Homeostasis

Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945) completed his medical studies at Harvard University, where he then became a physician, a researcher, and a professor.17 The first body psychotherapists hardly ever quote him,18 but they often propose for mulations that were manifestly influenced, at least indirectly, by his theories. Most of Cannon’s models were taught in the biology classes of secondary schools. In other words, for many, Cannon = Physiology.19 His model of homeostasis is the first medical model that describes the capacity of the organism to auto-regulate. It also became a reference for European psychologists of the 1930s.

An Organism Submissive to the Metabolic Needs

At the end of World War I, Cannon was a military physician in France. In Paris, he discovered the work of Claude Bernard and his idea that every organism has, at its disposal, strategies to regulate its internal environment in a changing environment. Cannon then undertook research on the strategies that permit an organism to regulate the internal environment. He refers to these regulatory systems as homeostasis.

The concept of homeostasis is a precursor of the systemic and cybernetic theories. Like Lamarck and Bernard, Cannon situates the mind in the mechanisms created to enhance the regulatory systems of the internal environment of the organism This approach does not prohibit other functions from having grafted themselves to the regulatory mechanisms of the internal environment. This point of view is compatible with Darwin’s hypothesis on the emotions, which, like parasites, latch on to the regulatory systems that were not originally conceived for them Cannon mentions, for example, the observation of Bernard quoted by Darwin:22 that there exists a spontaneous link between certain emotional expressions and cardiac activity. Having demonstrated, in detailed fashion for certain mechanisms, that the affects are associated to diverse physiological mechanisms, Cannon concluded that the mechanisms of internal homeostatic regulation are composed of physiological, mental, and behavioral mechanisms. Other researchers, like Wilhelm Reich (1940) and Henri Laborit (1971), studied how these mechanisms insert themselves into social and political strategies.

Best yoga classes online for Unlegitimized relationships tend to occur in communities when any of the following conditions obtain marriage partners typically come from other communities, there are conflicts between the generations, people are differentiated on the basis of wealth or social status, one group in the community is the conqueror of the other group, individuals owe allegiance to more than one competing group, and there are no duly recognized individuals or councils with the authority to settle disputes. All of these conditions may produce feelings of jealousy, envy, rivalry, and mistrust, which lead to anger and feelings of aggression that are manifested in wishes to cause others harm and the expectation that others will cause oneself harm. As the people live close to one another in small communities and must interact peacefully on a daily basis, the expression of anger must be indirect and hidden, as in witchcraft. In some cultures witchcraft works to control and channel this anger and aggression through witchcraft accusation. When something goes wrong in the community, a person is accused of being a witch and killed, thus relieving tension in the community by transferring community anger to a scapegoat. This was exactly the situation in the Salem, Massachusetts, witchcraft hysteria of when hundreds were accused and twenty were executed as witches. Community harmony was disrupted by deep disputes about civil versus church authority, morality, and wars with the local Indians leading to a breakdown of traditional legal procedures and the resulting scapegoating of local citizens. Best yoga classes online photos, Best yoga classes online 2016.

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