Basic yoga techniques on Despite the fact that all of these texts are regarded as sruti (revelation) and therefore treated as infallible, Western commentators are generally agreed that they do not all teach the same thing and that one can often detect different hands at work even in the same Upanisad. Nevertheless, there are some dominant themes. Perhaps the most significant is what we might call the karma-samsara-moksa complex. The Upanisads are the earliest texts to introduce the notions of samsara (wandering here from life to life), karma (action) as a moral principle that is built into the universe, and moksa, release from this process. In the earliest Upanisads, the new doctrines of karma and samsara are combined with or introduced through a reinterpretation of the older Vedic notion of two pathways that a person can follow after death. The first of these is the way of the gods (devayana), also called the path of light (arcirmarga); the second is the way of the ancestors (pitryana), also called the path of darkness (dhumamarga). If, after death, a person follows the path of the gods then the destination is the realm of brahma (brahmaloka), also called the realm of truth (satyaloka). Basic yoga techniques 2016.