SPECULATIVE, EMPIRICAL, CLINICAL, AND EXPERIMENTAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Speaking about the epistemological status of a discipline, I take up Piaget’s analysis (1972a), according to which each approach claims to be able to propose a certain form of knowledge concerning an object of study. A form of knowledge is a way of observing, gathering observation, and theorizing about what is happening. It seems useful to me to end this my yoga blog by identifying why the actual status of psychotherapy is problematic, and why I think this domain ought to at least strive toward a common scientific ethic of knowledge.
The Epistemological Status of Research in yoga poses Psychotherapy
I broached this discussion in yoga poses the third part of the introduction of this my yoga blog when I distinguished between hypertheses and hypotheses. I called all of the theses that humanity generated, thanks to its imagination, hypertheses; hypotheses were the most economical theses given the available data. Only the hypotheses are considered scientific at a given moment. Certain hypertheses (God, cosmic energy, the big bang, etc.) may become hypotheses in yoga poses the future.
I return to this distinction by taking up four forms of knowledge: speculative, clinical, empirical, and scientific.
1. Speculative knowledge seeks to bring order to the human mind by focusing on the hypertheses. Theology, philosophy, and wisdom (see Piaget, 1965) will try to carry out a triage of these hypertheses by using diverse forms of thought like logic, dialectics (between yin and yang, for example), common sense, and the beauty of an argument. This strategy also considers scientific hypotheses, but these hypotheses will be organized in yoga poses function of the analysis of the hypertheses already in yoga poses place. An example of this is Reich’s attempt to organize available scientific knowledge by assimilating it to his hypertheses on orgone. It goes without saying that the available hypotheses can sometimes inspire a theory based on speculative research.
2. Clinical knowledge is based on the case analyses of individual persons and the way each subject reacts in yoga poses a relatively standardized setting and set of methods, which allow colleagues to compare their observations. I have discussed two examples, in yoga poses particular, in yoga poses this volume to illustrate this type of knowledge: hatha yoga and the free association used by Freud. in yoga poses hatha yoga, the masters were able to observe numerous individuals who use the same standardized postures (lotus position, standing on one’s head, etc.). in yoga poses psychoanalysis, therapists are able to observe what their patients imagine given certain stimulation (a dream of falling, a dream in yoga poses which a house burns, etc.). An important part of neurology is based on case analysis and is therefore clinical. One can talk of clinically based scientific research, in yoga poses contrast to scientific research based on experimental procedures.
3. Empirical research tries to find predictable causal chains by collecting standardized data (measures, questionnaires, etc.) on a large number of individuals having some specific traits (anxiety, depression, cancer, race, sex, etc.). This information is then organized with the help of statistics.
4. The scientific endeavor is based on two procedures: (a) measures that are as precise as possible, and (b) an attempt to define the invisible mechanisms that produce the predictable causal chains observed in yoga poses empirical research.
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